Viscount Melbourne 1834 - Whig
Sir Robert Peel 1834-1835 - Tory
Viscount Melbourne 1835-1841 - Whig
Sir Robert Peel 1841-1846 - Tory
Lord John Russell 1846-1851 - Whig
Earl of Derby 1852 - Conservative
Earl of Aberdeen 1852-1855 - Tory
Lord Palmerston 1855-1858 - Liberal
Earl of Derby 1858-1859 - Conservative
Lord Palmerston 1859-1865 - Liberal
Lord John Russell 1865-1866 - Whig
Earl of Derby 1866-1868 - Conservative
Earl of Beaconsfield 1868 - Conservative
W. E. Gladstone 1868-1874 - Liberal
Earl of Beaconsfield 1874-1880 - Conservative
W. E. Gladstone 1880-1885 - Liberal
Marquis of Salisbury 1885-1886 - Conservative
W. E. Gladstone 1886 - Liberal
Marquis of Salisbury 1886-1892 - Conservative
W. E. Gladstone 1892-1894 - Liberal
Marquis of Salisbury 1895-1902 - Conservative
William Lamb, the 2nd Viscount Melbourne and Queen Victoria's first Prime Minister , was born in 1779. His family was part of the aristocratic Whig society that reached a peak in the late 1700s. Its members reveled in non-stop politics, partying, gambling, and infidelity. His father, who embraced only the more disreputable Whig interests, was an inconsequential and almost nonexistent factor in William's life. His mother was wholly different. Described as beautiful, clever, virile, and cool she aggressively and successfully pursued her two goals -- to rise to the height of English society and to raise happy, productive children. She befriended the Duchess of Devonshire, the Prince of Wales (the future George IV), and Lord Egremont, widely believed to be William's biological father. Lady Melbourne recognized William's natural intelligence and potential and encouraged his education at Eton, Cambridge, and Glasgow where he studied under the Whig professor John Millar. Lamb was an avid reader who developed his own interests in literature, drama, and religion. Continued Here:-
VICTORIA (r. 1837-1901)
Victoria was born at Kensington Palace, London, on 24 May 1819. She was the only daughter of Edward, Duke of Kent, fourth son of George III. Her father died shortly after her birth and she became heir to the throne because the three uncles who were ahead of her in succession - George IV, Frederick Duke of York, and William IV - had no legitimate children who survived. Warmhearted and lively, Victoria had a gift for drawing and painting; educated by a governess at home, she was a natural diarist and kept a regular journal throughout her life. On William IV's death in 1837, she became Queen at the age of 18.
Queen Victoria is associated with Britain's great age of industrial expansion, economic progress and - especially - empire. At her death, it was said, Britain had a worldwide empire on which the sun never set.
In the early part of her reign, she was influenced by two men: her first Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, and her husband, Prince Albert, whom she married in 1840. Both men taught her much about how to be a ruler in a 'constitutional monarchy' where the monarch had very few powers but could use much influence. Albert took an active interest in the arts, science, trade and industry; the project for which he is best remembered was the Great Exhibition of 1851, the profits from which helped to establish the South Kensington museums complex in London.
Her marriage to Prince Albert brought nine children between 1840 and 1857. Most of her children married into other royal families of Europe: Edward VII (born 1841, married Alexandra, daughter of Christian IX of Denmark); Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (born 1844, married Marie of Russia); Arthur, Duke of Connaught (born 1850, married Louise Margaret of Prussia); Leopold, Duke of Albany (born 1853, married Helen of Waldeck-Pyrmont); Victoria, Princess Royal (born 1840, married Friedrich III, German Emperor); Alice (born 1843, married Ludwig IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine); Helena (born 1846, married Christian of Schleswig-Holstein); Louise (born 1848, married John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll); Beatrice (born 1857, married Henry of Battenberg). Victoria bought Osborne House (later presented to the nation by Edward VII) on the Isle of Wight as a family home in 1845, and Albert bought Balmoral in 1852.
Victoria was deeply attached to her husband and she sank into depression after he died, aged 42, in 1861. She had lost a devoted husband and her principal trusted adviser in affairs of state. For the rest of her reign she wore black. Until the late 1860s she rarely appeared in public; although she never neglected her official Correspondence, and continued to give audiences to her ministers and official visitors, she was reluctant to resume a full public life. She was persuaded to open Parliament in person in 1866 and 1867, but she was widely criticised for living in seclusion and quite a strong republican movement developed. (Seven attempts were made on Victoria's life, between 1840 and 1882 - her courageous attitude towards these attacks greatly strengthened her popularity.) With time, the private urgings of her family and the flattering attention of Benjamin Disraeli, Prime Minister in 1868 and from 1874 to 1880, the Queen gradually resumed her public duties.
In foreign policy, the Queen's influence during the middle years of her reign was generally used to support peace and reconciliation. In 1864, Victoria pressed her ministers not to intervene in the Prussia-Austria-Denmark war, and her letter to the German Emperor (whose son had married her daughter) in 1875 helped to avert a second Franco-German war. On the Eastern Question in the 1870s - the issue of Britain's policy towards the declining Turkish Empire in Europe - Victoria (unlike Gladstone) believed that Britain, while pressing for necessary reforms, ought to uphold Turkish hegemony as a bulwark of stability against Russia, and maintain bi-partisanship at a time when Britain could be involved in war.
This Stevengraph was made with the wrong date of 1837 instead of 1819 when she was born. It was corrected before put on sale to the public.
Edward VII was the eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Born in 1841, he did not inherit the throne until his mother's death in 1901, when he was 59 years old. Given little responsibility during Victoria's lifetime, Bertie (as he was called by his family) devoted himself to a life of pleasure. Despite his 1863 marriage to Princess Alexandra of Denmark, with whom he had six children, he was infamous for his many mistresses and playboy lifestyle.
As king, Edward VII was popular with his people and abroad, but he reigned for only nine years before dying in 1910. He was succeeded by his oldest surviving son, King George V.
Queen Mary was the wife of George V and mother to Edward VIII and George VI.
She was an austere and regal figure, but this made her more, rather than less, admired, and her strong sense of duty and her steadfastness through both World Wars earned her an enduring affection.
This most traditional of monarchs, however, oversaw some of the biggest upheavals the Royal Family has ever seen.
The worst came when, to her strong disapproval, her son, Edward VIII, abdicated the throne to marry the divorced American, Wallace Simpson.
She had six children, and outlived three of them as well as her husband, who died 30 years before her. She lived to see her granddaughter, Queen Elizabeth II, ascend to the throne - the third of her descendants to do so - but died three months before the formal coronation.
She is buried alongside her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor.
GEORGE V (r. 1910-36)
George V's reign began amid the continuing constitutional crisis over the House of Lords, which refused to pass a Parliament Bill limiting its powers (which would remove its power to veto a Bill from the Commons). After the Liberal government obtained the King's promise to create sufficient peers to overcome Conservative opposition in the Lords (and won a second election in 1910), the Parliament Bill was passed by the Lords in 1911 without a mass creation of peers.
George visited India in 1911, the only King-Emperor to do so. In 1914 the First World War broke out. The King made over 450 visits to troops and over 300 visits to hospitals visiting wounded servicemen, he pressed for proper treatment of German prisoners-of-war and he pressed also for more humane treatment of conscientious objectors. In 1917 anti-German feeling led him to adopt the family name of Windsor (after the Castle of the same name). Support for home rule for Ireland had grown in the late 19th century. This was resisted by the Unionists in the north and by the Conservative Party. The 1916 Easter Rising in Dublin, and subsequent civil war, resulted in the setting up of the Irish Free State (later to become the Irish Republic) in 1922, while the six northern counties remained part of the United Kingdom. George played a conciliatory role on this, and on other occasions, such as the General Strike of 1926.
Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother was the mother of Queen Elizabeth II, the present British sovereign, and the widow of the late King George VI. The daughter of Lord Glamis, later 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was descended from the Royal House of Scotland and retained strong associations with Scotland.
The Queen Mother's remarkable life spanned over a century, a period of immense change. Having married Prince Albert, Duke of York in 1923, she found herself Queen Consort on the abdication of King Edward VIII in 1936. As Queen she played a significant role in the life of the nation, supporting the King and helping to uphold national morale during the difficult years of the Second World War and its aftermath.
Widowed at the age of 51, she continued to undertake Royal duties for the next fifty years in support of her daughter, The Queen. Public appearances continued right up to the end of her life, even in periods of ill health. The resilience, sense of duty and gracefulness of The Queen Mother in all areas of her life earned her a secure place in the heart of national life.
GEORGE VI (r. 1936-52)
George VI, a conscientious and dedicated man, worked hard to adapt to the role into which he was suddenly thrown. In 1923 he had married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon; and he carried out many official engagements at home and abroad, and established The Duke of York's Summer Camps for boys from all backgrounds. Reserved by nature, and of deep religious belief, he did not expect to become King.
The King paid a State Visit to France in 1938, and to Canada and the United States in 1939 (he was the first British monarch to enter the United States). His dedication to duty, particularly during the Second World War, when he remained for most of the time at Buckingham Palace (the Palace was bombed nine times during the war), and when he and his wife visited severely bombed areas in the East End of London and elsewhere in the country, gained him great popularity. The King developed a close working relationship with his wartime Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, as most of Europe fell to Nazi Germany.
Queen Victoria, whose father died soon after she was born Alexandrine Victoria in 1819, was only 18 when she came to the throne in 1837 as the result of the failure of any of George III's sons older than her father, the Duke of Kent, to produce a legitimate heir. Her reign was the longest in British history. She married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha on 10 February 1840 and this marriage, which ended with his death in 1861 at the age of 42, was happy and produced nine children.
These children were, in order of birth:
Victoria (Vicky), Princess Royal, b.1840, d. 1901 as dowager Empress of Germany (married Frederick (Fritz) of Prussia, 1858)
Albert Edward (Bertie), Prince of Wales, b. 1841, d.1910 as King Edward VII (married Princess Alexandra of Denmark, 1863)
Alice, b. 1843, d. 1878 as Grand Duchess of Hesse-Darmstadt (married Prince Louis of Hesse-Darmstadt, 1862)
Alfred (Affie), b. 1844, d.1900 as Duke of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (married Princess Marie of Russia, 1874)
Helena (Lenchen), b.1846, d.1923 as Princess Helena of Schleswig-Holstein (married Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein)
Louise, b.1848, d.1939 as Dowager Duchess of Argyll (married Marquess of Lorne 1871)
Arthur, b.1850, d.1942 as Duke of Connaught (married Princess Louise of Prussia)
Leopold, b.1853, d.1884 as Duke of Albany (married Princess helena of Waldeck-Pyrmont)
Beatrice, b. 1856, d. 1944 as Princess Beatrice of Battenberg (married Prince Henry of Battenberg)
Queen Victoria died on 22 January 1901.
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