Sir Henry Morton (1841-1904),
Anglo-American journalist and explorer; one of the leading figures in the exploration and colonization of Africa.
Originally named John Rowlands, Stanley was born on January 28, 1841, at Denbigh, Wales. At the age of 18 he sailed as a cabin boy to New Orleans, Louisiana, where he gained employment under an American merchant named Henry Morton Stanley, whose name he adopted. During the American Civil War he served in the Confederate army and in 1862 was captured at the Battle of Shiloh. He transferred to the federal service but was discharged, ostensibly because of ill health. In 1867 he became a special correspondent for the New York Herald, and in that capacity in 1868 he accompanied the British punitive expedition led by the British army officer Robert Cornelis Napier against the Ethiopian king Theodore II and was the first to relay the news of the fall of Magdala, then the capital of Ethiopia.
Search For Livingstone
In 1869 the American newspaper publisher James Gordon Bennett of the Herald dispatched Stanley to find the Scottish missionary and explorer David Livingstone from whom little had been heard while he was searching for the source of the Nile. After being delayed by other assignments, Stanley reached the island of Zanzibar off the eastern coast of Africa on January 6, 1871. He crossed over to the mainland and left for the interior on March 21, with about 2000 men. On November 10 he met the ailing Livingstone at Ujiji, a town on Lake Tanganyika, and is said to have greeted him with the famous remark, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"
After nursing Livingstone back to health, Stanley and he explored the northern end of Lake Tanganyika. Stanley returned to Europe in 1872, and the following year was sent by the Herald to West Africa to report on the British campaign against the Ashanti of what is now Ghana.
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